Курсовые, дипломные "Уникальность"
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Ransom’s fellowship as Good in That Hideous Strength
1.1 Main figures, their actions, goals and tasks
The main good character of trilogy is a philologist Ransom. He is accidentally captivated and taken in the space travelling to Malacandra (Mars). His travels on the space ship of the spherical form. The crew explains Ransom that they use poorly studied solar properties in order to make the ship fly. When Ransom arrived to Malacandra (Mars), strange and unexplainable things happened to him. The heroes found out that the Universe was created according to the physical laws only. Plato’s ideas gave C. S. Lewis an understanding of Universe as a single whole, in which internal and external, upper and down, sacred and natural are deeply interlaced. This Universe was created by Maleldil, e.g.:
“I am perfectly ready,” said MacPhee, “in and for this emergency, to allow the existence of these eldils of your and of a being called Maleldil whom they regard as their king (THS, p. 206).
The image of Maleldil correlates with the Christian God who is believed to be a Creator of the Universe and life. In That Hideous Strength Maleldil is called a king. If look on the religious dogmas, God is accepted as a protector and ruler, whose will is absolute for everyone alive. C. S. Lewis’s Maleldil is also a protector for mankind:
“It’s no good, MacPhee,” said the Director, “you can’t go. For one thing you don’t know the language. And for another – it’s time for frankness – you have never put yourself under the protection of Maleldil.” (THS, p. 206).
Protection of God in Christianity means the defence of soul from penetration of evil into it. Believers think that the Good and Evil always fight against each other. This fight is a battle for human soul (Hanegraaff & Strobel, 2003, p. 1). Which side wins, that one will receive a soul. In That Hideous Strength Maleldil’s will as a king is understood as sacred, e.g.:
“Do not try any tricks. Say your prayers and keep your will fixed in the will of Maleldil. I don’t know what he will do. But stand firm. You can’t lose your soul, whatever happens; at least, not by any action of his.” (THS, p. 209).
Ransom is a character opposite to evil-doers. In That Hideous Strength he is described as an instrument of Good. Oppositely to N.I.C.E. executors, he communicates with eldils, which are correlated with the biblical angels. Eldils are loyal to Maleldil (image of God).
“I don’t mean, of course, that anything can be a real neutral. A conscious being is either obeying God or disobeying Him. But there might be things neutral in relation to us.”
“You mean eldils – angels?” (THS, p. 262).
The eldils are heavenly creatures. According the novel, eldils inhabit specific planets:
The eldils that have for many centuries concentrated on our own planet (THS, p. 174).
Eldils are angels sent by Maleldil to save fallen humanity:
The point is that while it may be true at the end of the world to describe every eldil either as an angel or a devil, and may even be true now, it was much less true in Merlin’s time. There used to be things on this Earth pursuing their own business, so to speak. They weren’t ministering spirits sent to help fallen humanity; but neither were they enemies preying upon us. Even in St. Paul one gets glimpses of a population that won’t exactly fit into our two columns of angels and devils (THS, p. 262).
In Christianity angels are referred as a God’s army. They are incorporeal beings, which can easily and quickly move in the space. They appear before people at will. In Bible angels are described as helpers, proclaimers, protectors, dispersers of revelation and guardians etc. They are usually described as creatures made of light and having the very beautiful appearance.
As Marisa White says, “the novel has many allusions from the Bible”. Many of them are focused over inhabitants at St. Anne’s. Especially it concerns Dr. Ransom who is many times compared to Jesus Christ” (White, 2017, without pagination).
1.2 The role of Jane Studdock
When Jane met Ransom, her beliefs began to change. Her way led her to St. Anne’s place. There she saw people, who embodied all good existing in the world. Gradually Jane understood that she was created to bear good to other people. It’ is a mission of everyone on the Earth. She understands the essence of life. Each of them faced the red dragon, the inner devil, which represents the dark side of human soul and personal searches of own way to God. When the world deepened in the apocalyptic disarray, Jane and Mark’s love helped them to meet the dawn of the new day (White, 2017, without pagination).
As we can see from the first paragraph of the story, she doubts in the rightness of the marriage, e.g.:
In reality marriage had proved to be the door out of a world of work and comradeship and laughter and innumerable things to do, into something like solitary confinement. For some years before their marriage she had never seen so little of Mark as she had done in the last six months. Even when he was at home he hardly ever talked. He was always either sleepy or intellectually preoccupied. While they had been friends, and later when they were lovers, life itself had seemed too short for all they had to say to each other. But now... why had he married her? (THS, p. 3).
Jane’s thought of marriage shows that they are far from the Christian marriage, because as a result of their life together they could not become single whole, as it is provided by Christianity values. Jane and her husband Mark are like two egoists, who desire to be loved, but do nothing for this.
Communicating with the friend about marital life, Jane acknowledges that she would never be a good wife. At first Jane appeals to the ideals of feminism, in which she found her comfort. Jane tries to become the leader. It is when she met Ransom. Jane sees real man in him and feels herself a weak woman beside him. In this aspect we see the ideas of Christianity. According to them, a woman must obey her man. Jane decided to follow Ransom and she moved to Ransom’s boarding house and lived several days in the Christian association. Here she faced the labour distribution. Men performed heavy work, women – home work. Under these conditions Jane radically changed her understanding of life and marriage. In this simple ordered course of social existence she had a lot of time to think about children, obedience to a husband and God. She could become more sensible and does not wish to take initiative in her hands more. The culmination of Jane’s changes was Venus appearance, which descended in order to bless woman’s essence. It is not accidentally that Venus appears when Jane was baptized and substantially changed her attitude to Mark and marriage. Venus rise, oppositely, symbolizes the completeness of the initiation rite, i.e. the relation of Jane as a woman ready to the real Christian marriage and motherhood. After Jane began to believe in God, her faith made her accept the after-death life as reality, e.g.:
“Maleldil might be, quite simply and crudely, God. There might be a life after death: a Heaven: a Hell.” (THS, p. 214).
The readers can see that Jane is transformed inside, not always after her own will, but since she first met Dr. Ransom, the strange unknown feelings raised up inside her at this meeting. During communication with Dr. Ransom, Jane Studdock understood clearly that she has a creator and has certain purpose in life. She realizes she was created to be owned and used by her creator. She felt the experience of spiritual transformation. This is very important moment in the story because, if Jane’s heart didn’t changed, she would never be able to love Mark with all her devotedness.
1.3 Ransom as Pendragon and Jesus Christ
In That Hideous Strength Ransom makes the final step to Christianity. After his travellings to Malacandra and Perelandra he forever rid himself from his fears. It is necessary to note that C. S. Lewis many times appeals to the problem of fear overcoming as one of the fundamentals of Christianity requirements. For example, in Mere Christianity Lewis wrote: “... fear exists when a man is trying to get better. ... When a man is getting better he understands more and more clearly the evil that is still left in him. When a man is getting worse, he understands his own badness less and less. … Good people know about both good and evil: bad people do not know about either” (Lewis 1952, rev. 2014, p. 52). According to his words, one of the main characters Jane Studdock says that Ransom became similar to King Arthur and wise Solomon, e.g.:
It came over her, with a sensation of quick fear that this face was of no age at all. She had (or so she had believed) disliked bearded faces except for old men with white hair. But that was because she had long since forgotten the Imagined Arthur of her childhood – and the imagined Solomon too (THS, p. 128).
C. S. Lewis calls Ransom a legendary King Pendragon intentionally. Ransom is described as a great, strong and very good man, who looks young and thinks wisely. Guiding the Christian association, he shows the bright leadership qualities. Ransom does not show any feelings – either gladness, or sadness – but he received a task from Maleldil. His behaviour is similar to behaviour of Venus king. Arthur Pendragon is not merely the king of Britain, but its protector during many centuries, e.g.:
“What – what is he?”
“He’s a man, my dear. And he is the Pendragon of Logres. This house, all of us here, and Mr. Bultitude and Pinch, are all that’s left of the Logres: all the rest has become merely Britain (THS, p. 77).
According to C. S. Lewis, Arthur was the Christian king and its function is protection of the country from the effect of the pagan Britain. Consequently, the image of Last Battle from Arthurian legends is combined in That Hideous Strength with the Christian motive of the Doomsday that began in one of the sinful English town.
Having passed all the hardships, Ransom became the best example of the ideal Christian. Characters of Ransom and his former rival Weston are as if dematerialized. Weston is dead, so only memories about him still exist. Ransom has the corporeal body, but also ceases to be “ordinary man”.
Ransom is described as a saviour and leader of the Christian association. He resides at St. Anne’s. C. S. Lewis intentionally used this name, because during his travelling to England he also saw the ruins of St. Anne’s Cathedral destructed during the war. Lewis faced the consequences of evolutionism and was unpleasantly impressed by the aspirations of people to dominate the others, i.e. by negligence of the God’s Cathedral. Ransom gathered tens of people around him and also a bear and bird. Thus, they are 12, similarly as 12 apostles of Jesus Christ. Moreover,
C. S. Lewis in parallel describes Christ’s Wonders, when Ransom put faith in Jane and teaches her the norms of the Christian marriage, e.g.:
They never warned you. No one has ever told you that obedience – humility – is an erotic necessity. You are putting equality just where it ought not to be. As to your coming here, that may admit of some doubt. For the present, I must send you back. You can come out and see us. In the meantime, talk to your husband and I will talk to my authorities (THS, p.133).
Thus, Ransom almost heals Jane as Jesus healed people with only faith and prayer. Ransom continues to work over his personal development. He teaches people and learns from them. He explains Jane that the satisfaction of life is living for others. Ransom is like a father for her, that’s why she compares him with wise Solomon and King Arthur Pendragon. All the other call him Pendragon.
C. S. Lewis also compares Ransom with Jesus Christ. A protagonist accepts sufferings. He does not want to heal his wound from “Devil’s bite”, but he wants to live with it, e.g.:
God’s glory, do you think you were dug out of the earth to give me a plaster for my heel? We have drugs that could cheat the pain as well as your earth-magic or better, if it were not my business to bear it to the end (THS, p. 265).
Ransom even does not feel the pain, instead he accepts it as his cross, e.g.:
But now that it’s so very nearly time for me to go, all this begins to feel like a dream. A happy dream, you understand: all of it, even the pain. I want to taste every drop (THS, p. 342).
In That Hideous Strength Ransom appearance is depicted as the image of saint or king, e.g.:
How could she have thought him young? Or old either? It came over her, with a sensation of quick fear, that this face was of no age at all. She had (or so she had believed) disliked bearded faces except for old men with white hair. But that was because she had long since forgotten the Imagined Arthur of her childhood – and the imagined Solomon too. Solomon – for the first time in many years the bright solar blend of king and lover and magician which hangs about that name stole back upon her mind. For the first time in all those years she tasted the word King itself with all linked associations of battle, marriage, priesthood, mercy, and power (THS, p. 128).
Summarizing the above-said, C. S. Lewis depicted the progress of Ransom, having compared him with the images of Arthur Pendragon and Jesus Christ. Based upon Ransom’s experience, the author showed the battle between Science and Religion, in which the latter won.