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Термінологічна семантика

Термінологічна семантика

Дана стаття містить приклади аналізу англомовних термінів.

Як проаналізувати терміни?

1)    public relations – promotion of image, PR,  hype, image management, marketing, promotions, propaganda, publicity [Wilkinston P. Thesaurus]. Будь-який готовий продукт реалізується на ринку, для цього потрібна його реклама та доступність до публіки. Синоніми public relations, які найбільш відповідають меті реклами та пропаганди, є наступними  promotion, marketing, propaganda, наприклад:

- Launch marketing efforts included the use of viral marketing and social media, prominent TV coverage in shows like Ellen and Oprah, collaborations with retail customers such as Safeway and Walmart in product development and in-store promotion, and an endorsement from and cause marketing program with the Sierra Club (resulting in a donation of $645,000 to the organization in 2009) [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.395].

2) buy – purchase, acquire, bargain for, barter for, contract for, get, get in exchange, go shopping,  invest in, market, obtain, pay for, procure, purchase, redeem, score, secure, shop for, sign for, take [Wilkinston P. Thesaurus]. Сема «покупки», вкладена в основне значення терміну buy, відображена у наступних синонімічних одиницях  purchase, acquire, bargain for, barter for, go shopping, shop for, наприклад:

- Some recent risk-sharing applications include big computer hardware purchases and health plans for big unions [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.403].

- However, in 2009 eBay sold a majority stake in Skype to focus more on its e-commerce and payments businesses, leading the company to acquire Shopping.com, StubHub, Bill Me Later, and others. eBay now has a presence in 39 markets around the world [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.412].

3) commercialize – prepare for saleability, advertise, cheapen, degrade, depreciate, develop as business, lessen, lower, make bring returns, make marketable, make pay, make profitable, make saleable, market, sell [Wilkinston P. Thesaurus]. Комерціалізація продукту у сфері маркетингу пов’язана з такими явищами як реклама, продаж, отримання вигоди. Ці явища передає значення наступних синонімів: prepare for saleability, advertise, make bring returns, make marketable, make pay, make profitable, make saleable, market, sell, наприклад:

- Tom Hanks and Oprah Winfrey could successfully advertise a large number of products because they have extremely high ratings for familiarity and likability (known as the Q factor in the entertainment industry) [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.486].

4) exchange – trade, alternate, bandy, bargain, barter, buy and sell, cash in, castle, change, change hands, commute, contact with, convert into, correspond, deal in, displace, flip-flop, give and take, go over to, hook up, horse trade, interchange, invert, link up, market, network, pass to, pay back, rearrange, reciprocate, replace, return the compliment, reverse, revise, shift, shuffle, shuttle, substitute, swap, swap horses, switch, traffic, transact, transfer, transpose, truck, turn the tables [Wilkinston P. Thesaurus]. Термін exchange має багато синонімів, але зі сферою маркетингу пов’язані наступні одиниці, які містять значення основного терміну «обмін»: barter, change, convert into, substitute, наприклад:

- Selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash; marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering, and finally consuming it [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.18].

5)    marketing – shopping, commerce, business, dealing, economics, exchange, industry, merchandising, merchantry, retailing, trade, wholesaling [Wilkinston P. Thesaurus]. Наприклад:  Once a year, Marketing News lists hundreds of current marketing and sales software programs that assist in designing marketing research studies, segmenting markets, setting prices and advertising budgets, analyzing media, and planning sales force activity [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.112]. Оскільки термін marketing за семантикою означає здійснення ринкової діяльності, прямими синоніми є наступні commerce, merchandising, merchantry, retailing, trade, wholesaling, оскільки в їх значенні наявна сема «торгівля», наприклад:

-   Costco’s success comes from years of building consumer loyalty through its dedicated merchandising and pricing strategy combined with no-frills, cost-cutting policies [Kotler K. Marketing management, c.444].

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